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Cholera - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Cholera Definition

cholera is a water-borne disease and acute infectious disease of the small intestine. Cholera is infection with Vibrio cholerae, a comma-shaped bacteria. It may be caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Cholera may be characterized by profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, and depletion of electrolytes. Chalera is a mild infection. Cholera is a any of various diseases of domesticated animals, such as chickens, turkeys, or hogs, marked by severe gastroenteritis.

A person may get cholera by drinking water or eating food contaminated, in which the cholera bacterium is present. Cholera are also known as African swine fever, Asiatic cholera, V. cholerae, Vibrio or epidemic cholera.

Cholera Causes

Cholera occurs in epidemics when conditions of poor sanitation, crowding, war, and famine are present. A type of vibrio bacteria also has been associated with shellfish , especially raw oysters. Uncooked shellfish, milk, cooked rice, lentils, potatoes, beans, eggs, chicken and coconut milk all become the sources of the disease. But cholera may also be spread after a natural disaster such as a flood or earthquake when fresh water supplies are disrupted. Humans are the only hosts and victims of V. cholerae, a motile, aerobic microbe.

The bacterium that causes cholera, Vibrio cholerae, has two distinct life cycles - one in the environment and another one in humans. Vibrio cholerae germ produces a powerful poison or endotoxin. The disease is still common in the parts of the world, including the Indian subcontinent and sub-Saharan Africa.

Cholera Symptoms

Cholera infection is often mild or without symptoms. In the case of cholera, Patients usually remain oriented but apathetic, although small children may become stuporous or develop seizures,

The symptoms of the cholera may be included:

  • Rapid pulse
  • Dry skin
  • watery diarrhea
  • vomiting
  • leg cramps
  • Dry mucous membranes or dry mouth
  • Excessive thirst
  • Glassy eyes or sunken eyes
  • Lack of tears
  • Lethargy
  • Unusual sleepiness or tiredness
  • Low urine output
  • Sunken "soft spots"
  • Nausea Vomiting

Cholera Treatments

Cholera may be simply and successfully treated by immediate replacement of the fluid and salts lost through diarrhea. Treatment typically consists of aggressive rehydration and replacement of electrolytes.

Tetracycline may have a role in reducing the duration and severity of cholera. Other antibiotic treatment may be reduced the volume and duration of diarrhea and the period of Vibrio excretion.

Treatment requires rapid I.V. infusion of large amounts of isotonic saline solution, alternating with isotonic sodium bicarbonate or sodium lactate

The WHO has developed an oral rehydration solution that is cheaper and easier to use than the typical intravenous fluid.

 

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